Data Storage Training in IIHT

Any hardware device which is capable of holding information can be termed as storage. Basically there are two storage devices used in computers.

Primary storage device such as computer RAM 
Secondary storage device such as a computer hard drive.
 We can use a removable, internal, or external storage as secondary storage. The picture shows an example of a Drobo, an external secondary storage device.

NAS

A storage device (hard disk) which is set up using its own network address and provides file-based data storage services to other devices on the network can be termed as Network-attached storage (NAS). Usually NAS will be attached to the local area network and there will be an IP address associated with it.  This will allow for both application programming and files to be served faster because they are not competing for processor resources. Normally NAS devices will be configured on a web browser and won’t have a keyboard or display. 
NAS will contain hard disks including multi-disk RAID systems. The software is programmed to handle many network protocols including Microsoft's Internetwork Packed Exchange and NetBEUI, Novell's Netware Internetwork Packed Exchange and Sun Microsystems' Network File System. Most of the NAS boxes will be having their own proprietary operating system, but some of them will use standard operating system such as windows also. The management utilities inside NAS will be able to run many multiple NAS boxes if the storage capacity of the network is increased according to work load in order to  reduce work burden on storage administrators.
 

A network-attached storage device is attached to a local area network and assigned an IP address, allowing both application programming and files to be served faster because they are not competing for processor resources.NAS devices are usually configured with a web browser and do not have a keyboard or display.

Network-attached storage consists of hard disk storage, including multi-disk RAID systems. NAS software can usually handle a number of network protocols, including Microsoft's Internetwork Packet Exchange and NetBEUI, Novell's Netware Internetwork Packet Exchange, and Sun Microsystems' Network File System. Although some NAS boxes will run a standard operating system like Windows, many NAS devices run their own proprietary operating system. For example, the NAS platforms from NetApp use the company's proprietary Data ONTAP operating system. Management utilities are able to manage heterogeneous multiple NAS boxes as more storage is added to the infrastructure, easing the management burden on storage administrators.

Why Choose Network Attached Storage (NAS)?

With the help of external hard drives, we will be able to create additional storage using a simple USB connection to your computer. But there is a chance that some of these USB devices may be often restricted to use at the specific computer to which they’re connected and by the specific person using that computer. Here comes the role of NAS. NAS server will connect to your wireless router, instead of connecting to your personal computer or laptop. This property makes NAS to allow multiple users from multiple computers to access and share the content and files stored on it.

  • SynologyDiskStation DS1513+
  • SynologyDiskStation DS412+
  • Asustor AS-604T NAS server
  • WD My Cloud EX2
  • WD My Cloud (2 TB)
  • WD My Cloud EX4
  • QNAP TS-469 Pro NAS server
  • LaCie 5big NAS Pro

 

Network Attached Storage

  • SynologyDiskStation DS1513+SynologyDiskStation DS1513+
  • SynologyDiskStation DS412+ SynologyDiskStation DS412+
  • Asustor AS-604T NAS server Asustor AS-604T NAS server
  • WD My Cloud EX2 WD My Cloud EX2
  • WD My Cloud (2 TB) WD My Cloud (2 TB)
  • WD My Cloud (2 TB) WD My Cloud EX4
  • QNAP TS-469 Pro NAS server QNAP TS-469 Pro NAS server
  •  LaCie 5big NAS Pro LaCie 5big NAS Pro

SAN

A high-speed sub-network which interconnects different kinds of data storage devices with associated data servers on behalf of a larger network of users can be termed as storage area network (SAN). In an organization or enterprise SAN becomes an integral part of the overall network computing resources. Usually SAN’s are clustered in close proximity to the other computing resources, but can be extended to remote locations for backup and archival storage using WAN technologies such as ATM or SONET.

The technology used in SAN can be either IBM’s optical fiber ESCON or Fibre channel. SAN is capable of supporting different technologies such as disk mirroring, backup and restore, archival and retrieval of archived data, data migration from one storage device to another and the sharing of data among different servers in a network. In some SAN system integrators it will be linked to common storage bus in a personal laptop or computer which is shared by different kinds of storage devices such as a hard disk or a CD-ROM player. SAN does have the capability of incorporating sub-networks with (NAS) network-attached storage systems.

Understanding The Basics Of SAN Technology

Just look at today’s business environment, everyone (virtually every industry and technology) is competing against each other for delivering better performance at low cost.  Have a look at SAN’s market in particular, they are not only giving importance in reducing cost, but also make sure that you can make more optimal use of disk space and reducing power and energy requirements of SAN systems. Optimal storage space utilization is followed through various ways such as deduplication. The process of eliminating duplicate files or data blocks across storage volumes is termed as Deduplication. Deduplication works in two ways, either “inline” or “post-process”.

·         Inline deduplication implementation – This type of deduplication identifies and eliminates duplicate data as it is moved between host and target.

·         Post-process implementation – In this type of deduplication, after the data has been initially written to disk by identifying and eliminating duplicate data after the initial write.

IT’s not been so long since the vendors have started to add deduplication feature sets into their NAS systems as well. Till then, this has only been solely available in disk backup and virtual tape library (VTL) tools. Dedupliation feature can save up lot money since it offers to reduce repeated data in the range of 50-90%.  For actively monitoring and reporting on utilization of the storage infrastructure in order to increase the productivity, there are lot of storage management and reporting tools available in the market.

For reducing costs and improving the overall productivity in SAN environment, we must go through energy footprint of the storage infrastructure and the associated server space required by these systems. Energy footprint is being aided (i.e. total energy consumption is being reduced) through core technology improvements in the actual power consumption of storage systems. Larger disk drives have resulted in improved storage density which leads to an improved optimization of server floor space used. The increase in server floor space is directly proportional to the increase in cooling and power costs which will increase the hosting expenses. Nowadays, vendors (Drive manufacturers) are only concentrating on the implementing spin-down technologies which cause drives to stop moving when not being used while still being able to rapidly spin up. The spin-down technology offers excellent performance at a lower total amount of power consumed. Solid State Drives (SSDs) are the most optimal “spin-down” drives which obviously don’t spin at all. The only disadvantage associated with SSDs is their cost while comparing to other mechanical drive counterparts.

Another advantage of SAN is that it can be used not only for large organization environment, but also for small-to-medium-sized business (SMB) environment.  SANs combined with virtualized servers does have the capacity to share storage capacity across these multiple hosts allowing smaller businesses to more effectively scale up infrastructure whenever they require it.

The protocols used in SAN environment is shifting to iSCSI and related multi-protocol storage technologies because of its increasing popularity. By using iSCSI , business vendors are realizing to the fact that their current needs would only utilize a fraction of available fiber-channel capacity and more cost-effective solution which meets up their requirements. Many smaller iSCSI specialty firms are acquired by the larger ones indicated to the fact that power of iSCSI is rapidly being combined with the more sophisticated management tools offered by the larger firms. Because of the Multiprotocol storage options, there will be a lot of multiple protocols options such as NFS, CIFS, and fiber channel. Advantage of using multiprotocol storage solution is that it will consolidate SAN and NAS arrays into a finite number of multiprotocol arrays thus resulting in easy management and configuration of these environments.

Understanding The Basics Of SAN Technology

Just look at today’s business environment, everyone (virtually every industry and technology) is competing against each other for delivering better performance at low cost.  Have a look at SAN’s market in particular, they are not only giving importance in reducing cost, but also make sure that you can make more optimal use of disk space and reducing power and energy requirements of SAN systems. Optimal storage space utilization is followed through various ways such as deduplication. The process of eliminating duplicate files or data blocks across storage volumes is termed as Deduplication. Deduplication works in two ways, either “inline” or “post-process”.

·         Inline deduplication implementation – This type of deduplication identifies and eliminates duplicate data as it is moved between host and target.

·         Post-process implementation – In this type of deduplication, after the data has been initially written to disk by identifying and eliminating duplicate data after the initial write.

IT’s not been so long since the vendors have started to add deduplication feature sets into their NAS systems as well. Till then, this has only been solely available in disk backup and virtual tape library (VTL) tools. Dedupliation feature can save up lot money since it offers to reduce repeated data in the range of 50-90%.  For actively monitoring and reporting on utilization of the storage infrastructure in order to increase the productivity, there are lot of storage management and reporting tools available in the market.

For reducing costs and improving the overall productivity in SAN environment, we must go through energy footprint of the storage infrastructure and the associated server space required by these systems. Energy footprint is being aided (i.e. total energy consumption is being reduced) through core technology improvements in the actual power consumption of storage systems. Larger disk drives have resulted in improved storage density which leads to an improved optimization of server floor space used. The increase in server floor space is directly proportional to the increase in cooling and power costs which will increase the hosting expenses. Nowadays, vendors (Drive manufacturers) are only concentrating on the implementing spin-down technologies which cause drives to stop moving when not being used while still being able to rapidly spin up. The spin-down technology offers excellent performance at a lower total amount of power consumed. Solid State Drives (SSDs) are the most optimal “spin-down” drives which obviously don’t spin at all. The only disadvantage associated with SSDs is their cost while comparing to other mechanical drive counterparts.

Another advantage of SAN is that it can be used not only for large organization environment, but also for small-to-medium-sized business (SMB) environment.  SANs combined with virtualized servers does have the capacity to share storage capacity across these multiple hosts allowing smaller businesses to more effectively scale up infrastructure whenever they require it.

The protocols used in SAN environment is shifting to iSCSI and related multi-protocol storage technologies because of its increasing popularity. By using iSCSI , business vendors are realizing to the fact that their current needs would only utilize a fraction of available fiber-channel capacity and more cost-effective solution which meets up their requirements. Many smaller iSCSI specialty firms are acquired by the larger ones indicated to the fact that power of iSCSI is rapidly being combined with the more sophisticated management tools offered by the larger firms. Because of the Multiprotocol storage options, there will be a lot of multiple protocols options such as NFS, CIFS, and fiber channel. Advantage of using multiprotocol storage solution is that it will consolidate SAN and NAS arrays into a finite number of multiprotocol arrays thus resulting in easy management and configuration of these environments.

Storage Area Networks

Another advantage of SAN is that it can be used not only for large organization environment, but also for small-to-medium-sized business (SMB) environment.  SANs combined with virtualized servers does have the capacity to share storage capacity across these multiple hosts allowing smaller businesses to more effectively scale up infrastructure whenever they require it.

The protocols used in SAN environment is shifting to iSCSI and related multi-protocol storage technologies because of its increasing popularity. By using iSCSI , business vendors are realizing to the fact that their current needs would only utilize a fraction of available fiber-channel capacity and more cost-effective solution which meets up their requirements. Many smaller iSCSI specialty firms are acquired by the larger ones indicated to the fact that power of iSCSI is rapidly being combined with the more sophisticated management tools offered by the larger firms. Because of the Multiprotocol storage options, there will be a lot of multiple protocols options such as NFS, CIFS, and fiber channel. Advantage of using multiprotocol storage solution is that it will consolidate SAN and NAS arrays into a finite number of multiprotocol arrays thus resulting in easy management and configuration of these environments.

Benefits of a SAN

The primary benefits of a SAN are:

  • Availability: Data is accessible to anywhere and all hosts through multiple paths.
  • Reliability: Reliability is ensured by dependable data transportation (low error rate) and an ability to recover from failures is provided.
  • Scalability: Servers and storage devices do not depend on proprietary systems. They can be added independently of one another.
  • Performance: Standard method for SAN interconnectivity (Fibre Channel) has a 100MB/sec bandwidth and low overhead, and it separates storage and network I/O.
  • Manageability: Emerging software and standards for both FC-AL and Fibre Channel fabric can be managed by a single centralized management which also provides proactive error detection and correction.
  • Return On Information Management: Because of  increase in redundancy , manageability skills,  ability to add storage and servers independently of one another,  SAN environment do provide a lower cost of ownership and a Higher Return On Information Management (ROIM).

Direct Attached Storage (DAS)

The type of computer storage which is connected to one computer and not accessible to other computers can be termed as Direct-attached storage (DAS). Now while considering our personal laptops or computers, hard drive is the usual form of direct-attached storage. While considering bigger enterprise, the individual hard disks inside the server are considered as direct-attached storage, as are groups of drives which will be external to a server but will be connected directly through SCSI, SATA and SAS and interfaces. The output of DAS will be more than networked storage since the server does not have to go through the entire network in order to read and write data. This is the reason, why some large enterprise will opt for DAS for executing certain kind of applications which require high end performance. Microsoft suggests Exchange installations to use DAS.

Earlier DAS was not popular since DAS storage can't be shared and it does not provide failover in case of a server crash. With the help of the virtualization technology (which has become mainstream), DAS is able to regain popularity.

DAS environment tend to use protocols such as ATA, SATA, eSATA, SCSI, SAS, and Fibre Channel etc. DAS is a digital storage device which is supposed to be directly attached to a server or a personal computer through cable. DAS device can directly connect to a server without a network connection is the advantage of DAD device over NAS environment. In DAS connections, it creates data islands since data cannot be shared with other servers.

Direct Attached Storage (DAS)

A Direct Attached Storage (DAS) device can be an external or internal hard disk depending upon the scenario. According to the data critical level, different levels of Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Disks (RAID) is available for protecting disk drives. Nowadays, DAS systems include disk array controllers which are integrated with advanced functionalities.

DAS advantages include:

  • High availability.
  • Access rate is high due to absence of Storage Area Network (SAN).
  • Network setup complications are eliminated.
  • Expansion of Storage capacity.
  • Data security
  • Fault tolerance.

DAS drawbacks include:

  • Data can’t be accessed by different user groups.
  • DAS environment allows only one user at a time.
  • Administrative cost of SAN is high while comparing to other methods.

JOB PROFILES

Database administrator

  • establishing the needs of users and monitoring user access and security;
  • monitoring performance and managing parameters to provide fast query responses to front-end users;
  • mapping out the conceptual design for a planned database in outline;
  • considering both back-end organisation of data and front-end accessibility for end-users;
  • refining the logical design so that it can be translated into a specific data model;
  • further refining the physical design to meet system storage requirements;
  • installing and testing new versions of the DBMS;
  • maintaining data standards, including adherence to the Data Protection Act;
  • writing database documentation, including data standards, procedures and definitions for the data dictionary (metadata);
  • controlling access permissions and privileges;
  • developing, managing and testing back-up and recovery plans;
  • ensuring that storage, archiving, back-up and recovery procedures are functioning correctly;
  • capacity planning;
  • working closely with IT project managers, database programmers and multimedia programmers;
  • communicating regularly with technical, applications and operational staff to ensure database integrity and security;
  • commissioning and installing new applications and customising existing applications in order to make them fit for purpose.

Storage Systems Engineer

  • Maintaining partnerships and leveraging market technologies associated with SAN vendors, product enhancements and product roadmap
  • Developing, implementing and overseeing policies and procedures to ensure consistent storage provisioning, uptime, regulatory compliance and data protection
  • Managing and providing current disk/tape storage usage statistics and providing future projected growth estimates

Storage Management Specialist

  • Designs, plans, and implements storage systems and procedures.
  • Maintains efficient and reliable backup and recovery procedures.
  • Troubleshoots and supports the organizations storage systems.
  • Creates and reviews reports on storage usage.
  • Experienced with operating systems and Storage Area Networks (SAN) and backup solutions.
  • Demonstrates expertise in a variety of the field's concepts, practices, and procedures.

Cloud & Datacenter Operations

Netapp Administrator

Storage Administrator

Storage / BUR ( Backup& recovery ) Administrator

Cloud Admin

Network Architect

Virtualization Model

Virtualization Model

There are different kinds of virtualization techniques and through different layers of technology which virtualizes some part of our computing environment depending upon the requirement of the organization such as performance, reliability/availability, scalability, consolidation, agility, a unified management domain or some other goal.

  • Access Virtualization - Nowadays any device can access any application with the help of both hardware and software and either the device or application doesn’t have to know too much about each other. Application will view the device as it’s been working with it and the device will view the application as it knows how to display. In some special cases,  a different purpose hardware (specially made) may be required for both side of network connection in order to improve performance, allow different users to share a single client system or a single user to see multiple displays.
  • Application Virtualization - Computer software technology allow different applications to run on various operating systems and different hardware platforms. This is possible since each application has been written to use their individual application framework. These applications won’t get the benefits of application virtualization if it does not intend to use the application framework. This technology is so advanced such that it offers so much option such as ability to restart an application in case of a failure, start another instance of an application if the application is not meeting service level objectives, provide workload balancing among multiple instances of an application to archive high levels of scalability etc. There are also some sophisticated approaches to application virtualization in which some applications need not be re-architected or rewritten using some special application framework.
  • Processing Virtualization - In this type of virtualization, physical hardware configuration is hidden away from system services, operating systems or applications using hardware and software technology. Through this type of virtualization, you will be able to make one system appear to be many or many systems appear to be a single computing resource. Advantages of using this type of virtualization include goals ranging from raw performance, high levels of scalability, reliability/availability, agility or consolidation of multiple environments onto a single system.
  • Storage Virtualization – In storage virtualization, location of storage systems and what type of device is actually storing applications and data is hidden away by hardware and software technology. In virtualization technology, it’s possible for many systems to share the same storage devices without knowing that others are also accessing them. Storage virtualization technology also offers the option of taking snapshot of real time systems (banks, large organization) so that we can back up the data without disrupting online or transactional applications.
  • Network Virtualization — In this type of virtualization a different view of the network is presented which will be entirely different from the physical structure of the organization network. So in these scenarios, computer or a personal laptop may be allowed to only “see” systems it is allowed to access. One more advantage of using this type of virtualization is making multiple network links appear to be a single link.
  • Management of virtualized environments — With the help of new software technologies, we are able to create scenarios in which it’s possible for multiple systems to be provisioned and managed as if they were a single computing resource.